The catalytic converter is supposed to last for the full lifetime of your vehicle. It rarely happens that someone must deal with dysfunctional catalytic converter but not impossible.
There are a lot of factors that impact the life span, but generally a catalytic converter should last between 70,000 and 100,000 miles. This can be affected by how the car is used; for example, a car used for only short start/stop journeys for most of its life could wear the catalytic converter more quickly, because the engine and cat aren’t getting up to their optimum operating temperature before being switched off. Equally, a high mileage car that’s led a hard-working life can age the cat.